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Center for Development Research, Department Economy and Technological Change (ZEF B), University of Bonn

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    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FOs) on the socio-economic development of their FO-members. The interviews were conducted within a second field research in order to gather information on specific impact pathways of selected FOs that work to empower respective FO-members.

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    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FO) on the socio-economic development of their FO-member. The interviews were conducted within a first field research in order to gather information on institutional settings of FOs and to identify empowering approaches and empowering areas of Farmer Organizations.

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    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FOs) on the socio-economic development of their FO-members. The interviews were conducted within a second field research in order to gather information on specific impact pathways of selected FOs that work to empower respective FO-members.

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    This map is included in a global study on mapping marginality focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The Dimensions of Marginality are based on different data sources representing different spheres of life. The dataset used for this approach (Marginality Hotspots) can also be found here: (link to datasett???). Five different dimenstion of marginality were defined and based on their thresholds overlayed to identify those areas where more than only 1 or 2 dimensions occur but several once which make these areas more marginal. With regard to the project MARGIP especially those people are at risk who are marginalized and poor and are thereby lacking possibilities due to missing access to capital and resources but also by being remote. The number of poor are the once we want to make visible. Therefore data by HarvestChoice on Poverty Mass representing the number of people living in poverty were overlayed with dimensions of marginality to give an impression on how many people are living in these spots and are thereby being poor and marginal. See also: http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/zef_wp/wp88.pdf .

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    This data was collected for the doctoral research on Armed conflicts and forced displacement: incentives and consequences on consumption and social preferences. Specifically, the data in this portal focuses on the lab in the field experiment of trust and dictator games conducted between refugees and host communities in 11 refugee settlements in Adjumani District of Northern Uganda and the household survey of the same households. The survey covered 628 families and was collected in April 2018, while the experiment covered 619 of the same surveyed households and was collected in June 2018. Data from both the survey and the field experiment have been merged. In the supplementary material, I provide the questionnaires for both the survey and the field experiment, the experimental procedures that closely followed Bauer et al. (2018), and instructions to the enumerators to precisely conduct the experiment.

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    Primary data from a village survey in China 2011 (Jiangxi Province, Yangyi village). The data is mainly about migration, education, demography, and agriculture in China's rural areas.

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    The energy consumption in Ethiopia is based mainly (90%) on the traditional use of biomass for domestic needs, mostly using rudimentary cooking stoves. Against this background, the present study examines the importance of biomass for energy use of rural households and analyzes the long-term energy security. To this end, a farm household model is developed to investigate the association between the use of biomass for energy and food security. The study explores the effects of fuelwood shortages on the livelihood of the people through an examination of the decisions of households on the use of family labour and expenditures on food and energy. For this purpose, the study uses a panel dataset of Ethiopian households. Due to the endogeneity of shadow wages and prices and to selectivity biases a Fixed Effect Two-Stage Least Squares model is used with an “inverse Mills ratios” for wages, and food and energy expenditures. In addition, a Seemingly Unrelated Regression Analysis and Almost Ideal Demand System are used respectively to estimate the allocation of labour to agriculture, fuelwood collection and off-farm activities jointly. Discrete household energy choice decisions are estimated using a multinomial logit model with predicted wages and other determinants. Shadow prices of fuelwood and agricultural fuels were estimated based on their respective shadow wages and per unit labour hours expended in order to procure the respective energy sources. Furthermore, an Ordinary Least Squares and Tobit model were used to estimate the household demand for fuelwood, and charcoal and agricultural fuels respectively. A dynamic long-term model for the energy sector in Ethiopia is used to investigate the development of renewable energy for a cost-effective energy diversification at the national level. Finally, the suitability of institutional arrangements and collective actions for decentralized energy generation for remote communities are evaluated. The regression results show that fuelwood shortage or a decrease in the shadow wage for fuelwood collecting labour have negative effects on the allocation of labour on the agriculture, and a decrease in energy and food per capita expenditure. At the same time higher wages in agriculture have negative effects on the allocation of labour to the collection of fuelwood. An increase in fuelwood shortage was associated with in an increase in labour expended on fuelwood collection. The allocation of labour to the collection of fuelwood has a negative self–reward effect with an increase in shortage of fuelwood. A greater scarcity of fuelwood associated with the increase in purchase of biomass energy. An increase in the opportunity cost of fuelwood is associated with a decline in the use of this fuel with an own-price elasticity of -0.38. These evidences suggest that fuelwood shortage has negative effects on the welfare of households. Agricultural fuels and kerosene are not substitutes for fuelwood, which conforms to results of previous studies. The wealth of households, access to electricity, population density have the expected effect on the use of biomass. The energy use of households conforms to the concept of 'energy stacking' or, multiple fuel utilization'. However, access to modern forms of energy and economic growth play a central role in such a transition. Concerted policies are needed to help to improve the standard of living and the entrepreneurial skills of household. Furthermore, model results indicate that hydro-electric power will dominate the energy mix of the country without intervention in technological progress and innovations to improve efficiency. In the long term, however, it is predicted that droughts affect the reliability of this source of energy and the cost of energy will push up. To cope with these effects of drought in the hydro-electric sector in Ethiopia, Ethiopia needs to invest in the development of renewable energy resources more. This would improve both sustainability and resilience, but also increase production costs. Innovations to improve the technology and the efficiency of obtaining alternative energy, especially solar energy, increase diversity of energy sources, and reduce production costs and shadow prices and resource scarcity. Such innovations are therefore keys to reduce the risk of droughts and to improve the energy security and thus serve as an engine of economic growth. The results of a cost-benefit analysis for the development of biogas suggest that subsidies for large decentralized biogas plants could achieve higher profits than small biogas plants for households. Specific policy measures should improve energy efficiency and substitution and technical performance, tangible incentives such as capital subsidies and feed-in tariffs, ensure the availability of microcredit for the development of renewable energy and include rural households in local, smart grids.

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    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FOs) on the socio-economic development of their FO-members. The interviews were conducted within a second field research in order to gather information on specific impact pathways of selected FOs that work to empower respective FO-members.

  • Production-related data for the main crops in China: wheat, maize, indica rice, japanoica rice, and soybeans. Data is at least yearly for all variables, whereever possible data is monthly. The database includes crop prices (wholesale, retail, and minimum producer prices, export prices), area of production, production volumes, temperature variables, hours of sunshine, prices for different fertilizers, wages for different types of labor, and exchange rates. For many variables data is available on the province level, for some variables data is only available on the national level.

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    Palm oil constitutes approximately one-third of the 130 million tonnes of major vegetable oils and fats consumed annually worldwide. The use of bio-based materials in palm oil production and the potential to achieve a zero-waste production process motivated this study of the potential of the Malaysian palm oil industry participating in sustainable bioeconomy. Thus, assessment of policies on chain upgrading and bioeconomy programme is discussed in this study. In order to assess the productivity and the efficiency of oil palm plantations, field research was conducted in two regions in Malaysia: Johor in Peninsular Malaysia as an example of a long-term production area and Sabah in Borneo, a newly established oil producing site. A gross margin analysis was also conducted within a global value chain framework. The growers were disaggregated into three groups according to scale (smallholders, medium-sized growers, and large estates). In Johor, smallholders earned lower gross margins than large scale growers as a result of the long-term impacts of this industry. However, in Sabah, where the palm oil industry is a relatively recent development, there was an inverse relationship between farm size and income. Thus, a cost benefit analysis (CBA) was applied to evaluate the opportunity and the external costs of producing palm oil. The CBA also considers environmental factors, such as land-use changes, carbon emissions from fertilizers, pesticides, transportation for oil palm fruits, and methane and carbon emissions from extraction mills (which have frequently drawn concerns from critics of palm oil). A 25-year period (the length of a commercial cycle of the palm oil industry) and real interest rate scenarios (1–8 %) were adopted for the analysis. Based on the findings, the most productive plantations under the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) scheme, which has been a key institutional actor in the development of the Malaysian palm oil industry, earned a Net Present Value of RM84,980 (US$26,776) per hectare, earning more than the less productive plantations under the same scheme (approximately 293% higher) in 2010. Moreover, the external costs of converting forests to oil palm plantations were higher than that of repurposing existing rubber or cocoa plantations for oil palm plantation (which also stores less carbon). Comparing the two study regions, it was found that the small- and large-scale growers in Johor (the pioneer region of the industry) performed better than their Sabahan counterparts (where the palm oil industry is a more recent development) in terms of net present value (NPV) per hectare. However, this was not the case for medium-sized growers. In addition, the mills in Johor also performed better than those in Sabah in terms of NPV per hectare. To examine policy options that could be adopted to turn the Malaysian palm oil industry into a bioeconomy, two biofuel policies adopted by industrialised countries were reviewed, namely German rapeseed biodiesel and US corn ethanol policy. These international policies could serve as examples for the Malaysian government to improve their policy strategies for the Malaysian palm oil biofuel industry. The mixed experiences of the Malaysian policies for accelerating the development of the palm oil industry can be important lessons for other palm oil producing countries. Keywords: Palm oil, Global value chain, Gross margin, Cost benefit analysis, Science policy