Contact for the resource

Center for Development Research, Department Economy and Technological Change (ZEF B), University of Bonn

122 record(s)
 
GEMET keywords
Keywords
Regions
Contact for the resource
Provided by
Years
Formats
From 1 - 10 / 122
  • Categories  

    Using Sierra Leone – a post-conflict country in West Africa – as a case study, this dissertation addresses pressing issues on how to make smallholder agriculture more nutrition-sensitive, mitigate the adverse effects of seasonality on food security, and strengthen rural households’ resilience against shocks and stressors. The study utilizes self-collected panel data from 836 smallholder cocoa, coffee and cashew farming households in Eastern and Northern Sierra Leone between 2017 and 2019. The primary data is complemented with secondary data from the Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey. The first study exploits the quasi-experimental design to study the impacts and related pathways of an integrated agriculture-nutrition intervention. A focus is on the dietary outcomes of the interventions for cash cropping. Using a doubly robust estimator, the study finds that combining support for cash crop production and nutrition training led to a significant increase in household, maternal, and child dietary diversity and consumption of nutritious foodstuffs. The nutrition intervention alone is found to increase maternal intake of micronutrient-dense food groups significantly. However, the results indicate that solely supporting the production of the cash crops may significantly inhibit both household and individual dietary diversity. Improving caregiver’s nutrition knowledge and confidence in influencing food-related decisions are found to be the key pathways linking the combined intervention to better dietary outcomes. Utilizing data from two waves of the national household survey, the second study finds that agricultural seasonality imposes significant fluctuations on household dietary diversity and food security in Sierra Leone. The results show that rural households are most vulnerable to food insecurity during the lean season, during which they are compelled to frequently limit portion size at meal times and skip meals. Most importantly, the study finds that households residing closer to food markets consume more diverse diets and are more food secure in both lean and non-lean seasons than remoter households. The final study employs the panel data on smallholder cash cropping households to examine the drivers of resilience capacity and its effects on food security in the face of shocks. Relative to non-participating households, the interventions are found to significantly increase the resilience capacity of the beneficiaries, by enhancing their adaptive capacity and ownership of productive assets. The empirical analysis also shows that more resilient households have superior future food security outcomes and are better positioned to effectively deal with shocks. Based on these results, the thesis concludes that incorporating a nutrition component into cash crop interventions promises to deliver larger nutritional benefits than implementing them in isolation. Additionally, development strategies aimed at strengthening market access, adaptive capacity, and access to productive assets will not only alleviate seasonal hunger but also enhance the resilience of rural households against shocks and preserve their food security and overall wellbeing.

  • Categories  

    There is an increasing interest of acquiring farmland abroad, especially following the food price crisis in 2007/08. East Africa is a hotspot of activities, and given the high prevalence of poor people in the area, impacts on rural livelihoods are expected to be substantial. Following significant primary data collection in Ethiopia and Uganda, the study analyses the impact of two such large-scale land acquisitions on the rural economy and the local population’s livelihood, using Theory-based Impact Evaluations (Hemmer 2011) within an analytical framework of layered social analysis (Williamson 2000). Impact is assumed to manifest through five major channels: land, labour, natural resources, technological & organisational innovation and institutional change. The study consists of five chapters: The introduction surveys the global trend, reviews existing evidence and relevant theory to elaborate a conceptual and an analytical framework for the research. The second chapter takes stock of trend and types of large-scale land acquisitions in Eastern Africa, using national official data from Ethiopia and Uganda. While there is a clear increase in number of land transactions, media reports are only confirmed in a small fraction. Investors are coming from Europe, the Arabic peninsula as well as other emerging economies in the global South (South Africa and India, specifically). However, a surprisingly large number of acquisitions is done by domestic investors. The third chapter analyses the early stage impact of a large scale land acquisition in the far western lowlands of Ethiopia. A Saudi-Ethiopian investor tries to develop 10,000 ha for irrigated rice production. Building on primary household data and qualitative information gathered in the area in 2010, a mathematical programming model is calibrated to quantify likely impacts ex-ante. The investment is found to have poverty reducing potential, mainly due to employment creation and growth of the rural non-farm economy. However, the local population has to bear uncompensated costs of lost forestland and local inequalities are likely to widen in consequence of unequal participation on employment and business opportunities. The fourth chapter examines a forty year old large-scale investment in Uganda to understand long-term impacts, especially regarding technological and organisational innovation, as well as institutional change. Using an institutional economic analysis, changes at the organisational structure of the investment can be related to broader changes in the surrounding rural economy, indicating the significant impact a LSLAs can have on rural transformation. Again, the investment has overall contributed to poverty reduction, but organisational flaws and the collapse of a contract farming scheme indicate the difficulties to govern the large farm well. The emergence of a land market for wetlands, adoption of rice as a new crop and organisational improvements among smallholders can be considered as major outcomes of the investment’s activities. The fifth chapter synthesises the early three empirical chapters and locates the findings within a broader set of trends regarding the commercialisation of the agri-food system, the discussion on optimal farm size for production and poverty reduction, and the importance of functioning land and labour markets for poverty reduction and rural transformation in developing economies.

  • Categories  

    Mobile phones have become the most ubiquitous telecommunication technology in developing countries. To take advantage of this trend, businesses, government agencies and non-governmental organisations are increasingly turning their attention to the delivery of services through mobile phones (m-services) in areas such as health, education, agriculture and entertainment. In the agriculture sector, information services are most common while m-payments, virtual markets and supply chain management systems are also expanding. The use of mobile phones in agricultural service delivery is still at an early stage, however, and most of the services have yet to reach scale and long-term financial sustainability. The dissertation examines how m-services could facilitate the participation of farmers in agricultural innovation processes, including the development and adoption of agricultural technologies. Four types of services are identified: information and learning, financial services, access to inputs and access to output markets. Existing empirical evidence in this research area is still scarce. To date, most of the research has focused on mobile phones as such. Only a few studies have looked specifically at m-services and their findings are not clear-cut. Several of them highlight benefits for farmers, including improved management practices, higher productivity or higher prices, while others do not find positive impacts. Kenya is widely seen as frontrunner in the development of m-services in Sub-Saharan Africa. The growth of the vibrant technology scene was facilitated by a number of factors, including the improving network infrastructure, government regulations and a supportive innovation environment that offers access to innovation hubs, finance and human resources. The growing customer base provides a promising market for m-service developers and through the mobile payment service M-Pesa, many Kenyans are already familiar with the use of their mobile phone for non-call related activities. A range of m-services are available for Kenyan farmers. However, the reach and scale of these services is still limited despite the conducive environment and their impacts have not been assessed. The dissertation presents the case study of M-Farm, an m-service that offers price information and marketing services to Kenyan farmers. It examines how the service has impacted farmers' decision to adopt agricultural technologies and their ability to generate income from their use. Farmers were very enthusiastic about the positive impact of M-Farm on production decisions and income, but the study finds little other evidence to support this positive perception. Other constraints, such as risk of crop losses, lack of insurance and limited finances, were generally seen as more significant obstacles. The study also shows that the radio provides a viable alternative to disseminating price information in the early stages of production, while M-Farm becomes more important closer to the selling stage. Existing m-services in the developing world are barely scratching the surface of what is technology possible. The dissertation examines how current technology trends may impact m-service delivery to farmers in the future. Three trends are identified, i.e. the growing diversity of mobile connected devices to access m-services; the 'Internet of Things' which links objects and people through the network; and the increasing ubiquity of mobile networks and expanding user base. The dissertation presents two scenarios for the evolution of mobile technology trends (Status Quo and Big Leap) and assesses their implications for agricultural service delivery.

  • Categories  

    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FOs) on the socio-economic development of their FO-members. The interviews were conducted within a second field research in order to gather information on specific impact pathways of selected FOs that work to empower respective FO-members.

  • Categories  

    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FOs) on the socio-economic development of their FO-members. The interviews were conducted within a second field research in order to gather information on specific impact pathways of selected FOs that work to empower respective FO-members.

  • Categories  

    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FOs) on the socio-economic development of their FO-members. The interviews were conducted within a second field research in order to gather information on specific impact pathways of selected FOs that work to empower respective FO-members.

  • Categories  

    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FO) on the socio-economic development of their FO-member. The interviews were conducted within a first field research in order to gather information on institutional settings of FOs and to identify empowering approaches and empowering areas of Farmer Organizations.

  • Categories  

    This is a theoretical study which compares the cost-effectiveness of storage and trade-related policies to stabilize food prices in a two-country setting. The raw data is generated based on stochastical simulations with Matlab Scripts. This data is then analyzed to assess how policies impact the distribution of prices in the two countries. Policies are storage and trade related. The Download is a ZIP-File containing many Matlab files (.m). For each scenario in the paper/dissertation, there are two Matlab files. The "_specs" file defines the specifications for the simulation (country size, ...), and the "_analysis" file is for the mathematical implementation (setting up the model, solving it, running the simulations). The different scenarios include (for details see the linked doctoral thesis by Jan Brockhaus which provides more background information) - "asymshocks": Asymmetric shocks between the two countries - "defaultvalues": The different distinct and discrete scenarios described in the paper - "privstorsubsidies": The continuous private storage subsidy - "reservevariation": The simulations for the reserves with different parameters (reserve capacity and trigger price are varied) All other files are required in the same folder for the calculations to run as these files are references in the ones mentioned above. Furthermore, the RECS toolbox (http://www.recs-solver.org/) and the CompEcon Toolbox (http://www4.ncsu.edu/~pfackler/compecon/download.html) must be installed first before running any of the codes.

  • Categories    

    The dataset includes 1332 observations on the household level in 3 regions with information from 6607 individuals. Subsets were used for the addressed research questions on agriculture, markets, economic preferences and resulting food and nutrition security. The precise methodology for research and data collection can be found in the doctoral thesis of the author.

  • Given that marginality is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, we included a broad set of variables covering ecological, social, and economic dimensions of human well-being in the focus regions. These “marginality dimensions” were based on the “spheres of life” defined in Gatzweiler et al. (2011, 13), including: “Economy”; “Quality of life”; “Landscape design and infrastructure”; “Ecosystems, natural resources, and climate”; “Public domain and institutions”; and “Demography.” For the purpose of this mapping exercise, single indicators were used to represent each of the spheres. Here the spheres “Landscape design, land use, and location” and “Infrastructure” are both captured by the single indicator “accessibility”, and the sphere “Behavior and quality of life” is represented by stunting. For each dimension a cut-off point along a range of indicator values was used to define the threshold below which an area was considered to be marginal. Indicator layers for each of the different dimensions of marginality were overlaid to find the areas where multiple layers of marginality overlap. We defined a ‘marginality hotspot’ as an area in which at least three dimensions of marginality overlapped. The maps were based on national and sub-national data published by the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Harvest Choice, and others. Method and results are described in detail in the following publication: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-7061-4_5/fulltext.html