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    Degree of socio-economic marginality in areas with capabilitiy gaps Socio-economic marginality: Socio-economic marginality in Ethiopia was defined by the following economic, health and educational conditional indicators: 1. Economy: 1.1 Regional poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption is below the poverty line = 3781 birr) 1.2 Food poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption for food is below the cost of 2.200 kcal/day per adult food consumption) 1.3 Wealth index (% of population being part of the lowest/2.lowest wealth quintile) 2. Health: 2.1 Child mortality rate (no. of deaths out of 1000 live births <5 years) 2.2 Nutritional status of children (% of children <5 years being stunted) 2.3 Nutritional status of adults (% of men/women age 15-49 with BMI <18.5 = acute under nutrition) 3. Education: 3.1 Illiteracy rate (% of population not being able to read/write in their native language) 3.2 Net enrolment ratio primary school 3.3 Net enrolement ratio high school Data source: 1.1/1.2: Ministry of Finance and Economy Development (2012): Ethiopia‘s Progress Towards Eradicating Poverty: An Interim Report on Poverty Analysis Study (2010/11). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1.3/2.1/2.2/2.3: Central Statistical Agency(CSA), ICF International (2012): Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Calverton, USA Capability gap: Areas with good agro-ecological suitability, but limited socio-economic capabilities of farmers to make use of this suitability. Agro-ecological suitability in Ethiopia was defined from the raster data set of agro-ecological suitability for rainfed crops (Fischer et al. 2002) Data source: Fischer et al. (2002): Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria The socio-economic capabilities of farmers were defined by the following indicators: 1. Access to technology (% of holders applying inorganic fertilizer to any crop during Meher season) 2. Access to credit (% of holders utilizing credit services) 3. Access to knowledge (% of holders utilizing advisory services) Data source: Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2002): Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Capability gap in Ethiopia: difference between conditional and positional marginality classes of the agro-ecological dimension. Classes in blue define capability gaps, where agro-ecological suitability is good while socio-economic conditions of farmers are poor in these areas. Classes in orange/red show areas in which socio-economic possibilities of farmers are good, while agro-ecological suitability is poor. Conditional marginality classes where defined from the raster data set of agro-ecological suitability for rainfed crops (Fischer et al. 2002) Data source: Fischer et al. (2002): Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria Positional marginality classes where defined by socio-economic capabilities of farmers: 1. Access to technology (% of holders applying inorganic fertilizer to any crop during Meher season) 2. Access to credit (% of holders utilizing credit services) 3. Access to knowledge (% of holders utilizing advisory services) Data source: Central Statistics Agency (CSA) (2002): Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia