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Society

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    The Data was collected by an online google form survey between April-July 2018, sent to the network of Regional Centers of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development. The data were used to analyze the role of these networks for implementation of SDGs, in different levels such as local, national and international. Data were analyses through descriptive statistics and Network Analyses.

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    Government Performance Index is calculated taking account indicators like steering capability of government, Resource efficiency, consensus building and International cooperation. Government Performance Index is one of indicators contributing for Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI). The short description of Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI)is given below :- Advocating reforms aimed at supporting the development of a constitutional democracy and a socially responsible market economy, the BTI provides the framework for an exchange of good practices among agents of reform. The BTI publishes two rankings, the Status Index and the Management Index, both of which are based on in-depth assessments of 129 countries. The Status Index ranks the countries according to the state of their democracy and market economy, while the Management Index ranks them according to their respective leadership’s management performance. Distributed among the dimensions of democracy, market economy and management, a total of 17 criteria are subdivided into 49 questions. BTI countries are selected according to the following criteria: They have yet to achieve a fully consolidated democracy and market economy, have populations of more than two million (excepting seven states chosen as particularly interesting cases), and are recognized as sovereign states.

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    Aldwaik and Pontius developed the intensity analysis, a type of change detection, to quantify the behavior of a categorical variable across several time intervals to measure the degree to which changes are non-uniform at three levels: interval, category, and transition. The data input values for the intensity analysis were obtained from landuse and land cover classification of Lagos. For the landuse maps check "Landuse Map Old Lagos (Nigeria) 2009 and 2015"

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    The data set was collected from one year field research (2017-2018) in two sites in Vietnam, including: The Complex of Monuments in Hue, Thua Thien-Hue Province; and the Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park in Quang Binh Province. It includes primary and secondary data sources. Primary source was collected from semi-structured, in-depth interveriews, and focus group discussions. Focus aspects contains the different networks and flows of heritage-making in the two sites. Participated informants ranges from governmental officers (of different levels), tour providers, accommodation providers, tourguides, experts, and local community. Secondary sources is extracted from policies, regulation documents, and other virual data sources. The data was used for the Doctoral project that was funded by the German Academic Exchange Services (DAAD) from 2015 to 2020.

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    The survey was disseminated to the global practitioners of Citizen Science using the online application Google Forms, and responses were collected between March and July 2019. The survey was designed to collect data from a wide audience, including practitioners from diverse disciplines, citizen scientists, policy makers and researchers. It explored collaboration of Citizen Science with SDGs regarding organized networks, education, data, and policy cycle.

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    This map shows ethnic fractionalization. The Ethnic Fractionalization Index is calculated using data from the 2007 Population and Housing Census. The striped areas show where marginality hotspots are. The map reveals that marginality hotspots are ethnically more homogeneous than non-hotspot areas.

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    The External Intervention Indicator considers the influence and impact of external actors in the functioning – particularly security and economic – of a state. On the one hand, External Intervention focuses on security aspects of engagement from external actors, both covert and overt, in the internal affairs of a state at risk by governments, armies, intelligence services, identity groups, or other entities that may affect the balance of power (or resolution of a conflict) within a state. On the other hand, External Intervention also focuses on economic engagement by outside actors, including multilateral organizations, through large-scale loans, development projects, or foreign aid, such as ongoing budget support, control of finances, or management of the state’s economic policy, creating economic dependency. External Intervention also takes into account humanitarian intervention, such as the deployment of an international peacekeeping mission.

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    The Factionalized Elites indicator considers the fragmentation of state institutions along ethnic, class, clan, racial or religious lines, as well as and brinksmanship and gridlock between ruling elites. It also factors the use of nationalistic political rhetoric by ruling elites, often in terms of nationalism, xenophobia, communal irredentism (e.g., a “greater Serbia”) or of communal solidarity (e.g., “ethnic cleansing” or “defending the faith”). In extreme cases, it can be representative of the absence of legitimate leadership widely accepted as representing the entire citizenry. The Factionalized Elites indicator measures power struggles, political competition, political transitions, and where elections occur will factor in the credibility of electoral processes (or in their absence, the perceived legitimacy of the ruling class).

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    The persistence of poverty in some parts of the society across the globe inspired recent studies in development economics to embrace the use of multidisciplinary tools and concepts to better understand the situation of the poor. This thesis employs one of the recent conceptual tools, the aspirations-failure framework, which links the situation of the poor and their (under)investment behavior to aspirations failure. Based on individual and household level data collected from a sample of farm households in rural Ethiopia, the thesis first econometrically examines the effect of social interactions on aspirations (with respect to income, wealth, social status and education). The findings are in line with the theory which suggests that aspirations are socially determined through observations and social interactions. In particular, results indicate that social network size is an important determinant of aspirations and especially that of women’s, attesting to the importance of widening the ‘aspirations window’ – a person’s cognitive world that shapes their aspirations. One of the channels in which aspirations may affect behavior is through their effect on risk aversion. The thesis finds that the ‘aspirations-gap’ (AG) – the difference between the aspired and present status – indeed relaxes risk aversion, and the association is non-linear. Results also indicate that the effect of AG on risk preferences is stronger for women. Social interactions may also enhance diffusion of innovations and productivity. Based on social networks data collected using ‘random matching within sample’ procedure, the thesis identifies strong evidence of network externalities in the adoption of row-planting and also in farm productivity. The novelty of the thesis is also the identification of aspirations (or AG) as one of the key determinants of farmer innovativeness or the adoption of innovation products such as chemical fertilizers. The main goal of the thesis is ultimately to try to understand the implications of aspirations by examining their interactions not only with the underlying drivers of well-being (such as the adoption of agricultural innovations and risk behavior) but also their interactions with the well-being outcomes themselves. The thesis uses various outcome indicators including income and consumption expenditure, various triangulating measures of food security, and subjective well-being defined in terms of life satisfaction and happiness. In nearly all outcome indicators, the thesis finds suggestive evidence that aspirations are important predictors of household well-being in rural Ethiopia. The overall findings of the thesis clearly demonstrate that beyond the resource-related deprivations, low aspirations also play a role in rural households’ decision-making in Ethiopia, with consequences on well-being outcomes. Targeting the determinants of aspirations may therefore be a useful policy strategy.

  • Mohammad Abdul Malek, Md. Amzad Hossain, Ratnajit Saha and Franz W. Gatzweiler. 2013. Mapping marginality hotspots and agricultural potentials in Bangladesh. Data Sources for creating the map have been: - Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010 data. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, People's Republic of Bangladesh - Monitoring the situation of children and women: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009. Technical report. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/MICS-PP-09v10.pdf - District series of Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics 2010, Dhaka, Bureau of Statistics. Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh