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    Degree of socio-economic marginality in Ethiopia, using the following economic, health and educational positional indicators: 1. Economy 1.1 Access to markets (travel time to next city > 50.000 capitals) 1.2 Transportation infrastructure (average all-weather road density m/km2) 1.3 Information infrastructure (% of households without telephone) 2. Health: 2.1 Access to education (no. of primary schools related to population density) 2.2 Access to information (% of households without radio) 2.3 Access to information (% of households without television) 3. Education: 3.1 Access to education (no. of primary schools related to population density) 3.2 Access to information (% of households without radio) 3.3 Access to information (% of households without television) Data source: 1.1/1.2/1.3/2.2/2.3/3.2/3.3: Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2007): Population and Housing Census. Atlas of Ethiopia 2007. Washington DC, USA 2.1/3.1 Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (2006): Atlas of the Ethiopian Rural Economy. Washington DC, USA

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    Degree of socio-economic marginality in Ethiopia, using the following conditional indicators of the economic sector: 1. Regional poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption is below the poverty line = 3781 birr) 2. Food poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption for food is below the cost of 2.200 kcal/day per adult food consumption) 3. Wealth index (% of population being part of the lowest/2.lowest wealth quintile) Data source: 1.+ 2. Ministry of Finance and Economy Development (2012): Ethiopia‘s Progress Towards Eradicating Poverty: An Interim Report on Poverty Analysis Study (2010/11). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 3. Central Statistical Agency(CSA), ICF International (2012): Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Calverton, USA

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    Agro-ecological suitability for rainfed crops in Ethiopia based on the raster data set puplished by Fischer et al. (2002) Fischer et al. (2002) produced a worldwide classification raster of agronomic suitability based on crop modeling, including climate, soil and slope data. The mean suitability value of each woreda was calculated from the raster set and mapped on woreda level. Data source: Fischer et al. (2002): Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria

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    Degree of agro-ecological marginality in Ethiopia, using positional indicators (socio-economic possibilities of farmers) 1. Access to technology (% of holders applying inorganic fertilizer to any crop during Meher season) 2. Access to credit (% of holders utilizing credit services) 3. Access to knowledge (% of holders utilizing advisory services) Data source: Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2002): Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Degree of socio-economic marginality in areas with capabilitiy gaps Socio-economic marginality: Socio-economic marginality in Ethiopia was defined by the following economic, health and educational conditional indicators: 1. Economy: 1.1 Regional poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption is below the poverty line = 3781 birr) 1.2 Food poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption for food is below the cost of 2.200 kcal/day per adult food consumption) 1.3 Wealth index (% of population being part of the lowest/2.lowest wealth quintile) 2. Health: 2.1 Child mortality rate (no. of deaths out of 1000 live births <5 years) 2.2 Nutritional status of children (% of children <5 years being stunted) 2.3 Nutritional status of adults (% of men/women age 15-49 with BMI <18.5 = acute under nutrition) 3. Education: 3.1 Illiteracy rate (% of population not being able to read/write in their native language) 3.2 Net enrolment ratio primary school 3.3 Net enrolement ratio high school Data source: 1.1/1.2: Ministry of Finance and Economy Development (2012): Ethiopia‘s Progress Towards Eradicating Poverty: An Interim Report on Poverty Analysis Study (2010/11). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1.3/2.1/2.2/2.3: Central Statistical Agency(CSA), ICF International (2012): Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Calverton, USA Capability gap: Areas with good agro-ecological suitability, but limited socio-economic capabilities of farmers to make use of this suitability. Agro-ecological suitability in Ethiopia was defined from the raster data set of agro-ecological suitability for rainfed crops (Fischer et al. 2002) Data source: Fischer et al. (2002): Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria The socio-economic capabilities of farmers were defined by the following indicators: 1. Access to technology (% of holders applying inorganic fertilizer to any crop during Meher season) 2. Access to credit (% of holders utilizing credit services) 3. Access to knowledge (% of holders utilizing advisory services) Data source: Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2002): Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Capability gap in Ethiopia: difference between conditional and positional marginality classes of the agro-ecological dimension. Classes in blue define capability gaps, where agro-ecological suitability is good while socio-economic conditions of farmers are poor in these areas. Classes in orange/red show areas in which socio-economic possibilities of farmers are good, while agro-ecological suitability is poor. Conditional marginality classes where defined from the raster data set of agro-ecological suitability for rainfed crops (Fischer et al. 2002) Data source: Fischer et al. (2002): Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria Positional marginality classes where defined by socio-economic capabilities of farmers: 1. Access to technology (% of holders applying inorganic fertilizer to any crop during Meher season) 2. Access to credit (% of holders utilizing credit services) 3. Access to knowledge (% of holders utilizing advisory services) Data source: Central Statistics Agency (CSA) (2002): Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    The Household module questionnaire was used to list all the members of the selected households and basic characteristics of each listed person, such as age, sex, education, relationship to the household head and other household level information. The household questionnaire also collected information about total agricultural productions and sales, livestock ownership, holdings of various consumer and durable goods and other income sources, food and non-food expenditures, labor and time use, and household members’ health status in the last two months preceding the survey.

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    The child module questionnaire was used to collected information about child feeding practices such as exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, current breastfeeding and complementary foods, prevalence of illness in the previous two weeks period (such as diarrhea, malaria, fever, pneumonia, and cough), immunization records and anthropometric measurements.

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    Degree of socio-economic marginality in Ethiopia, using the following positional indicators of the education sector: 1. Access to education (no. of primary schools related to population density) 2. Access to information (% of households without radio) 3. Access to information (% of households without television) Data source: 1. Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (2006): Atlas of the Ethiopian Rural Economy. Washington DC, USA. 2./3. Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2007): Population and Housing Census. Atlas of Ethiopia 2007. Washington DC, USA

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    The follow-up surveys were administered between April and July 2014 after completing the baseline survey by the end of March 2014. The aim of the survey was to collect information on under-five children heath status—such as diarrhea, fever, vomiting, constant cough, stomach pain/cramps and skin infections in the preceding two weeks. This data collection process requires multiple successive visits to the households, and each household has been visited every fortnightly for a period of three months to record the health status of the children. For this purpose, one-page child health calendar questionnaire was developed to record information about symptoms of a particular illness; how long the symptoms stay; and what treatment they seek for if any. The data collection was done by health and agriculture extension workers who work in the selected kebeles. Training was given to the enumerators during the field organization for the follow-up household survey. In most cases, the data collectors ask the child’s primary caretaker—usually the mother or another adult woman household member.