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Ethiopia

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    Regional borders in Ethiopia Data source: GADM version 1.0, March 2009

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    Agro-ecological suitability for rainfed crops in Ethiopia based on the raster data set puplished by Fischer et al. (2002) Fischer et al. (2002) produced a worldwide classification raster of agronomic suitability based on crop modeling, including climate, soil and slope data. The mean suitability value of each woreda was calculated from the raster set and mapped on woreda level. Data source: Fischer et al. (2002): Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria

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    Data is collected from 664 women working at the flower farm and 182 control women who sought employment at the flower time but not successful to get hired in the Oromia region.The survey instrument contains time use module, expenditure module, asset module, welfare related questions and socio-demographic questions.

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    There is an increasing interest of acquiring farmland abroad, especially following the food price crisis in 2007/08. East Africa is a hotspot of activities, and given the high prevalence of poor people in the area, impacts on rural livelihoods are expected to be substantial. Following significant primary data collection in Ethiopia and Uganda, the study analyses the impact of two such large-scale land acquisitions on the rural economy and the local population’s livelihood, using Theory-based Impact Evaluations (Hemmer 2011) within an analytical framework of layered social analysis (Williamson 2000). Impact is assumed to manifest through five major channels: land, labour, natural resources, technological & organisational innovation and institutional change. The study consists of five chapters: The introduction surveys the global trend, reviews existing evidence and relevant theory to elaborate a conceptual and an analytical framework for the research. The second chapter takes stock of trend and types of large-scale land acquisitions in Eastern Africa, using national official data from Ethiopia and Uganda. While there is a clear increase in number of land transactions, media reports are only confirmed in a small fraction. Investors are coming from Europe, the Arabic peninsula as well as other emerging economies in the global South (South Africa and India, specifically). However, a surprisingly large number of acquisitions is done by domestic investors. The third chapter analyses the early stage impact of a large scale land acquisition in the far western lowlands of Ethiopia. A Saudi-Ethiopian investor tries to develop 10,000 ha for irrigated rice production. Building on primary household data and qualitative information gathered in the area in 2010, a mathematical programming model is calibrated to quantify likely impacts ex-ante. The investment is found to have poverty reducing potential, mainly due to employment creation and growth of the rural non-farm economy. However, the local population has to bear uncompensated costs of lost forestland and local inequalities are likely to widen in consequence of unequal participation on employment and business opportunities. The fourth chapter examines a forty year old large-scale investment in Uganda to understand long-term impacts, especially regarding technological and organisational innovation, as well as institutional change. Using an institutional economic analysis, changes at the organisational structure of the investment can be related to broader changes in the surrounding rural economy, indicating the significant impact a LSLAs can have on rural transformation. Again, the investment has overall contributed to poverty reduction, but organisational flaws and the collapse of a contract farming scheme indicate the difficulties to govern the large farm well. The emergence of a land market for wetlands, adoption of rice as a new crop and organisational improvements among smallholders can be considered as major outcomes of the investment’s activities. The fifth chapter synthesises the early three empirical chapters and locates the findings within a broader set of trends regarding the commercialisation of the agri-food system, the discussion on optimal farm size for production and poverty reduction, and the importance of functioning land and labour markets for poverty reduction and rural transformation in developing economies.

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    The potential of different business approaches to reduce poverty and marginality depends on the characteristics of different regions and people living in these regions. Here, (a) population density, (b) accessibility, e.g. in terms of mobile phone, internet and road connections, as well as (c) the predominant form of livelihood and/or farming systems may be important factors determining market sizes and transaction costs and thus incentives to invest in these markets. This map is an overlay of these different indicators. Greenish colors show irrigated or perennial areas, brownish colors pastoralist, agro-pastoralist and arid areas and reddish colors indicate areas dominated by different other farming patterns. The lighter the color the lower the population and road density. For the classification of population and connectivity values being ‘high’ or ‘low’ the national mean value is used as threshold. Data: Population density: CIESIN (2011) Connectivity: CSA et al. (2008) Farming systems: HarvestChoice (2001)

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    This map shows ethnic fractionalization. The Ethnic Fractionalization Index is calculated using data from the 2007 Population and Housing Census. The striped areas show where marginality hotspots are. The map reveals that marginality hotspots are ethnically more homogeneous than non-hotspot areas.

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    Degree of socio-economic marginality in Ethiopia, using the following conditional indicators of the economic sector: 1. Regional poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption is below the poverty line = 3781 birr) 2. Food poverty headcount indices (% of population whose income/consumption for food is below the cost of 2.200 kcal/day per adult food consumption) 3. Wealth index (% of population being part of the lowest/2.lowest wealth quintile) Data source: 1.+ 2. Ministry of Finance and Economy Development (2012): Ethiopia‘s Progress Towards Eradicating Poverty: An Interim Report on Poverty Analysis Study (2010/11). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 3. Central Statistical Agency(CSA), ICF International (2012): Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Calverton, USA

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    Data on investment licenses from Ethiopia's Licensing office in Addis Abeba (Feb 2011). For each investment, country of origin, requested land size, some information on planned production, as well as employment and capital is contained (N=2814). Data quality: This data-set was received from the Ethiopian Investment Authority during a field visit in 2011. It contains data from investors that invested in the agricultural sector and requested some land. Unfortunately the land size information was very noisy (Units not clearly specified and missing values). Some land was requested in ha, some in sq.m. Processing: The data set attached was filtered based on size-capital assumptions, leaving out those investments that are purely processing (less land intensive). A cut-off point of 100 ha was chosen and 2814 observations for the period 1992 to Dec 2010 remained. This data set was used for Baumgartner (2012) Large-scale investments in Ethiopia, in (eds.) Allan et al.: Handbook of Land and Water Grabs in Africa, Routledge; and in Baumgartner et al. (2015) Poverty impacts of Large-scale land acquisitions, WDev.

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    The data was conducted by three Organizations: EDRI, IFPRI and University of Sussex to see the Impact of biomassweb on the economies of developing countries using the 2005 Household Income Consumption Expenditure Survey. It covers 65 production accounts, 100 consumption accounts, 16 households, 4 factors of production and, government, I-S and ROW accounts.

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    In four kebeles (smalles administrative unit in Ethiopia: Bonda Megela, Gaba, Wabo, Wangene) in Oromia district gender-disaggregated focus group discussions on socio-economic aspects of farming communities were conducted. Aspects have been the institutional network of the village (with the help of the Venn Diagram tool, income and livelihood sources (with land, without land, with irrigation, without irrigation) with a focus on cash and food crops and vegetable production, market access, marketing structure and prices, land titles and inheritance arrangements, role of extension services, access to credit, contractfarming and future plans of children. Discussions were part of the NutriHAF project, which aims at diversifying diets and livelihoods through the promotion of multi-storey cropping in biosphere hotspots in Ethiopia and Madagascar.