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    Environmental Democracy Index (EDI) consists of 75 legal indicators developed under 23 of the UNEP Bali Guidelines that are concerned with the development and implementation of legislation. In addition to the legal indicators, EDI includes 24 supplemental indicators that assess whether there is evidence that environmental democracy is being implemented in practice. The EDI legal indicators assess laws, constitutions, regulations and other legally binding, enforceable rules at the national level.

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    Integrating the ecosystem services (ES) approach into the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of spatial plans is seen as a suitable option for considering the value of nature in decision making and policy processes. However, there is an increasing concern about the institutional context and a lack of a common understanding of SEA and ecosystem services for adopting them as an integrated framework. This paper addresses this concern by analysing the current understanding and network relations in a multi-actor arrangement as a first step for moving towards a successful integration of ES in SEA and spatial planning. We based our analysis on a case study in Chile, where we applied a questionnaire survey aimed at the principal actors behind the planning process. The questionnaire focused on issues such as network relations among actors and on conceptual understanding, perceptions and challenges for integrating ES in SEA and spatial planning, knowledge on methodological approaches, and the connections and gaps in science-policy. The main findings suggest that a common understanding of SEA and especially of ES is still in an initial stage in Chile when we consider the context of multiple actors. Additionally, the lack of institutional guidelines and methodological support is considered the main challenge for integration. We conclude that preconditions exist in Chile for integrating ES in SEA and the spatial planning practice, but they strongly depend on an appropriate governance scheme which encourages a close interaction science-policy as well as collaborative work and learning.

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    Environmental Democracy Index (EDI) consists of 75 legal indicators developed under 23 of the UNEP Bali Guidelines that are concerned with the development and implementation of legislation. In addition to the legal indicators, EDI includes 24 supplemental indicators that assess whether there is evidence that environmental democracy is being implemented in practice. The EDI legal indicators assess laws, constitutions, regulations and other legally binding, enforceable rules at the national level scores. TRANSPARENCY Pillar contains following Guidelines:- Guideline 1: "Accessibility of Environmental Information Requests" ? Guideline 2: "Environmental Information in Public Domain" ? Guideline 3: "Grounds for Refusal" ? Guideline 4: "Environmental Information Collection and Management" ? Guideline 5: "State of the Environment Report" ? Guideline 6: "Early Warning Information" ? Guideline 7: "Capacity-building for access to information (There are no indicators for this guideline)"

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    Household surveys were conducted in 251 households to ascertain the local knowledge and practices of indigenous Tagbanua non-honey hunter gatherers. Majority of the 251 households we interviewed use honey as food, medicine, and material. In addition, NDVI values of the household and nesting areas were analyzed in relation to the natural resource management practices of the community.

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    In a bid to understand the spatial distribution of giant honey bees in a community forest in Palawan, participatory mapping was conducted with indigenous Tagbanua honey hunters and gatherers. Through the use of global positioning system devices, digital cameras, and a solar home system as electricity source, local collaborators mapped a total of 31 bee nests from April to June 2015. This study provides a replicable long-term participatory methodology and promotes participatory learning and mutual knowledge creation. By combining applied sustainability research with local stakeholder participation, we suggest that novel knowledge and solutions can aid sustainable rural development.

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    Environmental Democracy Index (EDI) consists of 75 legal indicators developed under 23 of the UNEP Bali Guidelines that are concerned with the development and implementation of legislation. In addition to the legal indicators, EDI includes 24 supplemental indicators that assess whether there is evidence that environmental democracy is being implemented in practice. The EDI legal indicators assess laws, constitutions, regulations and other legally binding, enforceable rules at the national level. Justice Pillar contains following Guidelines:- Guideline 15: "Information Request Appeals" ? Guideline 16: "Public Participation Appeals" ? Guideline 17: "Right of Public to Challenge State or Private Actors" ? Guideline 18: "Broad Standing" ? Guideline 19: "Fair, Timely & Independent Review" ? Guideline 20: "Affordable Access to Relief & Remedy" ? Guideline 21: "Prompt Effective Remedies" ? Guideline 22: "Effective Enforcement" ? Guideline 23: "Awareness and Education about Remedies & Relief" ? Guideline 24: "Public Access to Judicial and Administrative Decisions" ? Guideline 25: "Capacity Building for Access to Justice (There are no indicators for this Guideline)" ? Guideline 26: "Alternative Dispute Resolution for Environmental Issues" ?

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    Environmental Democracy Index (EDI) consists of 75 legal indicators developed under 23 of the UNEP Bali Guidelines that are concerned with the development and implementation of legislation. In addition to the legal indicators, EDI includes 24 supplemental indicators that assess whether there is evidence that environmental democracy is being implemented in practice. The EDI legal indicators assess laws, constitutions, regulations and other legally binding, enforceable rules at the national level. Participation Index rank contains following guidelines:- Guideline 8: "Early Public Participation" ? Guideline 9: "Proactive Public Consultation" ? Guideline 10: "Informed Participation" ? Guideline 11: "Due Account of Public Comments" ? Guideline 12: "Public Participation in Review" ? Guideline 13: "Integrating Public Input for Rule-making" ? Guideline 14: "Capacity Building for public participation (There are no indicators for this guideline)"

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    As people change their livelihood preferences, they change the way they relate to the natural resources around them. Anticipating and managing these changes, where possible, is a major challenge for sustainable land-use planning and natural resource management. This is most evident in the Amazon, a region of immense biological and cultural diversity but also a region of rapid change and transformation, quickly integrating through transportation infrastructure (roads, harbors, airports, etc.) with other South American regions and the rest of the world. This project analyzes social and ecological change taking place in indigenous settlements of the Amazon region, as they transform their subsistence economies to fit into a western model of living. It uses social ecological systems as a framework to identify and explore the linkages between changes in these two domains, and aims at understanding natural resource management from the perspective of the user and the utilized resource. This, we argue, requires an understanding of collective decision making (governance) of the variations in land and resource use in a community governed in a specific way, and of the response of forests to small-scale human intervention. The way decisions are taken and the way a group of people structure their governance system will affect the ecological system in different ways. We observed fast transformation and diversification of formerly indigenous communities and fast-track integration into western systems of organization resulting in hybrid governance systems with different combinations of traditional and western ways of social organization and resource management. Palms are an ideal study group because their use and ecology is well documented throughout the region and have more recently become an important source of income for many Amazonian populations. Changes in the management of three utilized palm species served as indicators of change in the social ecological system. We investigated palm abundance and management in the three land-use categories: cultivation areas, moderately disturbed forest, and low disturbance forest. Palms are not sown from seed or transplanted into cultivation areas rather they are passively cultivated (protected from fire, weeds, pests, falling branches, etc.). Although palm species are appreciated either for commercial or domestic purposes, seldom did we observe or document active cultivation taking place. In forested areas the most abundant of the three, Socratea exorrhiza, recognized as a generalist or oligarchic species, showed a positive response to moderate levels of human intervention. The second most abundant species, Astrocaryum chambira, is a near generalist, with more restrictions for its dispersion and establishment than S. exorrhiza, and therefore a less favorable response to moderate levels of intervention. Abundance of Phytelephas macrocarpa was the lowest; as a soil specialist its distribution is uneven and its overall response to intervention most difficult to assess. Changes in palm management betrayed a general shift from a view of cultivation areas as the community’s pantry to a view of cultivation areas as the sum of individually owned plots where only commercially valued species are harvested. The distinction between the three zones was blurred in the community with greater access to the west, there was a pressure towards privatization, to erase the traditional zoning regulations, since both palms and land are seen as a commodity. Indiscriminate extraction is taking place in forested areas and in cultivation areas pressure and conflicts are increasing and leading to formalization of property rights and new forms of representation, thus pushing integration further. Transportation infrastructure will continue its expansion, the pressure for oil and mineral extraction will increase in the Amazon and it will be necessary to accept and understand these paths of change in order to minimize the negative consequences that they might have for the social ecological system as a whole.

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    This part project gathered information on the abundance and structure of three utilized palm species populations around two human settlements in North-west Amazonia, the southern Colombian Amazon region. We collected information on the size of all palm individuals in 3ha of low disturbed forest and 3ha of moderately disturbed forest around each community. These two forest categories were defined using satellite image analysis distinguishing areas with high soil humidity and vegetation cover (low disturbed areas) which were furthest away from the human settlement and used occasionally for hunting. Areas with lower soil humidity and vegetation cover (moderately disturbed areas) were closer to the community and were often used for selective timber extraction.

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    One of the traditional livelihood practices of indigenous Tagbanuas in Palawan, Philippines is wild honey gathering from the giant honey bee. In order to analyse the linkages of the social and ecological systems involved in this indigenous practice, we conducted spatial, quantitative, and qualitative analysis on field data gathered through GPS mapping, community surveys, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. We found that only 24% of the 251 local community members surveyed could correctly identify the giant honey bee. Inferential statistics showed that a lower level of education and higher household vegetation contribute to correct identification of the giant honey bee. Spatial analysis revealed that mean NDVI of sampled nesting tree areas has dropped from 0.61 in the year 1988 to 0.41 in 2015. This reduction on vegetation cover may contribute to reduced bee-human interactions and may also be an indication that commercialising non-timber forest products is not fulfiling its objective of development alongside conservation. Indigenous wild honey hunting and gathering as an ICDP shows the complexity of the social-ecological system of forest communities. It also shows the difficulty of getting a win-win situation out of simultaneous pursuit of forest conservation and rural development. Knowledge shifts can, indeed, occur from the interaction of ecological and social factors and we see that if resource management interventions do not employ a systems approach, it can overlook important feedback. NGO interventions should not only facilitate the learning of visible resource managers like wild honey hunters but of the community as a whole.