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  • Production-related data for the main crops in China: wheat, maize, indica rice, japanoica rice, and soybeans. Data is at least yearly for all variables, whereever possible data is monthly. The database includes crop prices (wholesale, retail, and minimum producer prices, export prices), area of production, production volumes, temperature variables, hours of sunshine, prices for different fertilizers, wages for different types of labor, and exchange rates. For many variables data is available on the province level, for some variables data is only available on the national level.

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    This study investigates the role of the land rental market in rural economic development with the province Chongqing, China, as case study region. The study focuses on the question participation in the land rental market can improve agricultural production efficiency and alleviate income inequality in rural areas. Finally, the factors that affect rental market participation of farm households are examined. A stochastic frontier approach was employed to measure effect of the land rental market participation on agricultural productivity. Two competing hypotheses are tested: 1) Less efficient farm households rent out land to more efficient farm households and agricultural productivity is improved; 2) More efficient farm households rent out land and work off of farm, which results in lower agricultural productivity. The results showed that both of these hypotheses are possibly true, but more efficient farm households are more likely to rent land rather than rent it out, which implies the productivity enhancive effect of land rental market. To investigate the impact of land rental market development on rural income distribution, firstly the income inequality was decomposed to measure the contribution of land rental income to total income inequality and the interactions between land rental income and other income sources. Then, relying on the inequality index calculated, a fixed effect model was used to investigate the impact of participation in the land rental market and land rental market imperfection on income inequality index. The results showed that contribution of land rental income to total income inequality is increasing over the observation period. And participation in land rental market may reduce income inequality, given an imperfect land rental market. Deriving from a farm household model, farm households’ supply and demand decisions in land rental market were explored. The multinomial Logit model is used to examine factors that influence farm household participation probability in the land rental market. Tobit models are employed to measure the impact on the quantity of renting and renting out by farm households. Results show the importance of off-farm work wage and off-farm labor market imperfection in defining the rental behavior of farm households: it prevents farm households from renting land and encourage them to rent out. Simulation results show that rising off-farm work wages and participation rate in the off-farm labor market lead to a lower equilibrium land rent in a closed economy.

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    The data included were collected from three villages of Chongqing, China in 2011. Topics related to land rental market participation were the theme of survey.

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    Primary data from a village survey in China 2011 (Jiangxi Province, Yangyi village). The data is mainly about migration, education, demography, and agriculture in China's rural areas.

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    This dissertation focuses on the impacts of rural-urban migration on the rural areas in China. It consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the research problems and presents the framework for studying three selected impacts of migration. These impacts are on the demographic change of the rural population, human capital investment, and agricultural productivity, and are all respectively discussed in the middle three chapters. The last chapter is a case study of a typical Chinese village with massive rural-urban migration. The second chapter first estimates the scale and age-structure of the rural-urban migrants, and then separates the effects of migration on the rural demography by performing simulations with the Cohort Component Method and using data from China’s latest censuses in 2000 and 2010. In addition, it uses household data to confirm the huge effect of rural-urban migration on the demographic structure. The third chapter develops a theoretical framework to investigate the relationship between migration and education. Empirical research reveals a robustly positive effect of migration on educational attainment among the stayers by proposing a novel instrument of the availability of local train stations to deal with the endogeneity. The fourth chapter sets up a theoretical model to study the impacts of migration on agricultural productivity and empirically employs a Simultaneous Equations Model estimated by two-step-least-square method. Empirical results show that migration of the labor force reduces agricultural productivity and households with migration do not invest more in agriculture unless the land size reaches an optimal level. Migration along with land transfer can improve agricultural productivity. The fifth chapter presents a case study of a Chinese village which is transforming its labor-intensive agriculture into a capital-intensive one based on changes in relative scarcity of production factors triggered by the rural-urban migration. It indicates that migration as an external force has broken equilibrium of the traditional agriculture and leads modern agriculture to take off by inducing capital to substitute for labor in agriculture.