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    The basic econometric model for the suggested interaction effect of resource endowments and institutional quality on economic growth is borrowed from Boschini et al., 2007 and Brunnschweiler, 2007. The approximation for institutional quality must be carefully chosen. The standard proxy variables that are typically employed in the literature with respect to the resource curse are indices such as ICRG, BERI, BI ratings (pioneered by Knack and Keefer, 1995; Mauro, 1995), and the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) suggested by Kaufmann et al. (2010). However, a potential bias in these indicators may arise from the fact that they are based on the subjective assessments of respondents. For instance, the evaluators may be more likely report that governance in a country is good during times of strong economic performance. The use of CIM also has potential risks if the measure is idiosyncratic and irrelevant to contract enforcement and property rights. Clague et al. (1999) reviewed case studies from several countries and found that CIM is a good measure of institutional quality, though some country examples demonstrate idiosyncratic cases. We also use the indicators of governance used by Kaufmann et al. (2010) such as Voice and Accountability (VA), Political Stability and the Absence of Violence (PA), Government Effectiveness (GE), Regulatory Quality (RQ), Rule of Law (RL), and Control of Corruption (CC)—with CIM, was illustrated to examine the suitability of CIM as an institutional quality variable.

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    The vegetation survey was performed in 21 circular plots of 10-m radius (250 m2) distributed as follows: 2 plots located in the area undergoing revegetation since 2014, 2 plots on the area undergoing revegetation since 2010, 6 plots on the area undergoing revegetation since 2006, and 11 plots on the area undergoing revegetation since 2002. Trees with diameter at breast height in the range of 2.5 – 10 cm were measured within the plots. In total, 717 trees were selected for measurement of diameter at breast height, wood density, total height and species identification. The coordinates of the center of each plot were recorded using a portable GPS (Garmin eTrex 10, Germany). The angle and distance of each tree from the center of the plot were measured, and its coordinates estimated. Stem diameters of all trees within the plot were measured using a calliper. Tree height was measured using a Vertex IV (Haglöf, Sweden). Crown diameter was measured in north-south and east-west directions. For species identification, a preliminary analysis of the flora of the area was performed following the guidelines developed by Idárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011), Cardona et al. (2010) and Cardona et al. (2011). For the identification of the trees, leaf samples were collected from all individuals. The samples were preserved in alcohol for transportation to the laboratory, and subsequently dried and visually matched with species of the herbarium of the National University of Colombia. Some species could only be classified by genus because their reproductive morphology could not be determined, which is specifically relevant for the identification of Vismia sp. (Hypericaceae), Casearia sp. (Salicaceae), Cordia sp. (Boraginaceae) and Licania sp. (Chrysobalanaceae). Due to the complexity of their morphological and reproductive characteristics, genera Inga sp. (Fabaceae), Citrus sp. (Rutaceae), Ficus sp. (Moraceae) and Piper sp. (Piperaceae) were not classified at the species level. Herbaceous aboveground biomass growing spontaneously within the area and that was located outside of areas with forest cover was harvested at ground level in 120 plots (4 m2 each) with 30 plots per area undergoing restoration since 2014, 2010, 2006 and 2002. The total fresh weight of the biomass was determined in the field, and a subsample of 500 g was oven-dried for 24 – 48 hours for determination of dry weight.

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    Household surveys were conducted in 251 households to ascertain the local knowledge and practices of indigenous Tagbanua non-honey hunter gatherers. Majority of the 251 households we interviewed use honey as food, medicine, and material. In addition, NDVI values of the household and nesting areas were analyzed in relation to the natural resource management practices of the community.

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    The table includes the daily values of Irridiation, Temperature (min. & max.), Vapour pressure and Precipitation. Note: Irridiation and Vapour pressure are being calculated.

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    In Nepal, rice-wheat annual double cropping system, which is the dominant food crop rotation in both the subtropical lowland as well as the temperate Himalayan mid-hills of Nepal. As a result of continuing urbanisation and shifting consumer preferences, a drive to replace of wheat with high-value vegetables during the cold dry season is gaining momentum, in the peri-urban fringes; simultaneously, emerging water shortages are preventing permanent soil flooding during the monsoon season, leading to partial substitution of lowland rice by less water-consuming upland crops. Such system shifts and associated changes in soil aeration status are altering the nutrient availability, while increasing the crop demand for the critically limiting micronutrients boron (B) and zinc (Zn). Therefore, compared the B and Zn levels in the traditional rice- based system (under anaerobic condition), in the water-saving maize-based system (aerobic conditions) with both conventional winter wheat and the emerging vegetables as rotation crops. Under controlled conditions in a dysfunctional greenhouse and under field conditions at two representative production sites and soil types (e.g. Acrisols in Kavre in the mid-hills of Nepal and a Fluvisols in Chitwan in the lowland), determined were(1) differential effects of system shifts on the soil supply and crop demand of B and Zn (diagnosis trials), (2) the effects of applying mineral B and Zn fertilizers on yields and economic returns of wheat vs. cauliflower and tomato (response trials), and (3) longer-term carry-over effects of a one-time application of soil B and Zn on biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake by maize (residual effect trials). Plant and soil nutrient was analyzed by Stata version 14.2.

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    The table includes soil properties in Nigeria Temporal coverage approximate 1950-2005. Spatial resolution 1km.

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    In a bid to understand the spatial distribution of giant honey bees in a community forest in Palawan, participatory mapping was conducted with indigenous Tagbanua honey hunters and gatherers. Through the use of global positioning system devices, digital cameras, and a solar home system as electricity source, local collaborators mapped a total of 31 bee nests from April to June 2015. This study provides a replicable long-term participatory methodology and promotes participatory learning and mutual knowledge creation. By combining applied sustainability research with local stakeholder participation, we suggest that novel knowledge and solutions can aid sustainable rural development.

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    A survey of agricultural households was conducted in early 2011 in order to provide background information on landownership, size of operation, rice production, input use, and farm practices in rural communities, as well as to identify and assess existing climate change adaptation strategies. A resurvey was conducted in late 2012 to build on the initial round of the survey, known as the Bangladesh Climate Change Adaptation Survey, with a greater focus on gender and asset dynamics. We tried to track all the households including the split with an attrition rate of 2.66 percent.e this template for data such as statistics, surveys, etc.

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    The table includes the daily values of Precipitation,Temperature Max and Min,Radiation, Wind speed.

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    The data was obtained from fixed observation point of Research Center for Rural Economy (RCRE) of China. RCRE authorized the author to use the data for scientific research and not for commercial purposes. Data provided here are the data derived from the raw data of RCRE for analyses of my dissertation. Data on agricultural production, land rental market participation, demographic structure, and income distribution were included.