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    The Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons Indicator measures the pressure upon states caused by the forced displacement of large communities as a result of social, political, environmental or other causes, measuring displacement within countries, as well as refugee flows into others. The indicator measures refugees by country of Asylum, recognizing that population inflows can put additional pressure on public services, and can sometimes create broader humanitarian and security challenges for the receiving state, if that state does not have the absorption capacity and adequate resources. The Indicator also measures the Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) and Refugees by country of origin, which signifies internal state pressures as a result of violence, environmental or other factors such as health epidemics. These measures are considered within the context of the state’s population (per capita) and human development trajectory, and over time (year on year spikes), recognizing that some IDPs or refugees for example, may have been displaced for long periods of time.

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    Democracy Status index is calculated taking account indicators like Stateness, Political participation, Rule of Law, Stability of democratic institutions and political and social integration. Democratic status is one of indicators contributing for Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI). Thes hort description of Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI)is given below :- Advocating reforms aimed at supporting the development of a constitutional democracy and a socially responsible market economy, the BTI provides the framework for an exchange of good practices among agents of reform. The BTI publishes two rankings, the Status Index and the Management Index, both of which are based on in-depth assessments of 129 countries. The Status Index ranks the countries according to the state of their democracy and market economy, while the Management Index ranks them according to their respective leadership’s management performance. Distributed among the dimensions of democracy, market economy and management, a total of 17 criteria are subdivided into 49 questions. BTI countries are selected according to the following criteria: They have yet to achieve a fully consolidated democracy and market economy, have populations of more than two million (excepting seven states chosen as particularly interesting cases), and are recognized as sovereign states.

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    The Public Services Indicator refers to the presence of basic state functions that serve the people. On the one hand, this may include the provision of essential services, such as health, education, water and sanitation, transport infrastructure, electricity and power, and internet and connectivity. On the other hand, it may include the state’s ability to protect its citizens, such as from terrorism and violence, through perceived effective policing. Further, even where basic state functions and services are provided, the Indicator further considers to whom – whether the state narrowly serves the ruling elites, such as security agencies, presidential staff, the central bank, or the diplomatic service, while failing to provide comparable levels of service to the general populace – such as rural versus urban populations. The Indicator also considers the level and maintenance of general infrastructure to the extent that its absence would negatively affect the country’s actual or potential development.

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    The Group Grievance Indicator focuses on divisions and schisms between different groups in society – particularly divisions based on social or political characteristics – and their role in access to services or resources, and inclusion in the political process. Group Grievance may also have a historical component, where aggrieved communal groups cite injustices of the past, sometimes going back centuries, that influence and shape that group’s role in society and relationships with other groups. This history may in turn be shaped by patterns of real or perceived atrocities or “crimes” committed with apparent impunity against communal groups. Groups may also feel aggrieved because they are denied autonomy, self-determination or political independence to which they believe they are entitled. The Indicator also considers where specific groups are singled out by state authorities, or by dominant groups, for persecution or repression, or where there is public scapegoating of groups believed to have acquired wealth, status or power “illegitimately”, which may manifest itself in the emergence of fiery rhetoric, such as through “hate” radio, pamphleteering, and stereotypical or nationalistic political speech.

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    This data was collected for the doctoral research on Armed conflicts and forced displacement: incentives and consequences on consumption and social preferences. Specifically, the data in this portal focuses on the lab in the field experiment of trust and dictator games conducted between refugees and host communities in 11 refugee settlements in Adjumani District of Northern Uganda and the household survey of the same households. The survey covered 628 families and was collected in April 2018, while the experiment covered 619 of the same surveyed households and was collected in June 2018. Data from both the survey and the field experiment have been merged. In the supplementary material, I provide the questionnaires for both the survey and the field experiment, the experimental procedures that closely followed Bauer et al. (2018), and instructions to the enumerators to precisely conduct the experiment.

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    The data was collected for doctoral research on sustainable agricultural sustainability in Ntcheu district of Malawi. The data was collected from 238 farming households and from their 450 plots. Data includes livelihood assets, agronomic practices and productivity. A Land productivity potential was estimated using soil fertility and topography. Soil data was extracted from digital soil map by Mponela P., Snapp S., Villamor G. B., Tamene L. D., Le Q. B., & Borgemeister C. (2020). Digital soil mapping of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, organic carbon and their crop response thresholds in smallholder managed escarpments of Malawi. Applied Geography. The topographic layers were extracted the STRM-DEM 30m resolution. The data is used in the thesis to estimate the impact of agricultural subsidy policy on farmer behaviour, productivity and nutrient balances and simulations of alternative subsidy policies are projected for the 20-year period from 2017.

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    To support farmer’s decision making regarding soil management, the main objective of this study is to understand the patterns of spatial variability of the soil properties of the deposit areas that might affect plant growth and crop productivity. For this purpose, soil samples were taken from 310 locations distributed in four reclamation areas of 50 ha each established in 2014, 2010, 2006 and 2002 in El Bagre, Antioquia.

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    The Data was collected by an online google form survey between April-July 2018, sent to the network of Regional Centers of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development. The data were used to analyze the role of these networks for implementation of SDGs, in different levels such as local, national and international. Data were analyses through descriptive statistics and Network Analyses.

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    Market Economy Status index is calculated taking account indicators like Level of Socioeconomic Development, Organization of the Market and Competition, Currency and Price Stability, Private Property, welfare regime, economic performance and sustainability. Market Economy Status index is one of indicators contributing for Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI). The short description of Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI)is given below :- Advocating reforms aimed at supporting the development of a constitutional democracy and a socially responsible market economy, the BTI provides the framework for an exchange of good practices among agents of reform. The BTI publishes two rankings, the Status Index and the Management Index, both of which are based on in-depth assessments of 129 countries. The Status Index ranks the countries according to the state of their democracy and market economy, while the Management Index ranks them according to their respective leadership’s management performance. Distributed among the dimensions of democracy, market economy and management, a total of 17 criteria are subdivided into 49 questions. BTI countries are selected according to the following criteria: They have yet to achieve a fully consolidated democracy and market economy, have populations of more than two million (excepting seven states chosen as particularly interesting cases), and are recognized as sovereign states.

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    The data set was collected from one year field research (2017-2018) in two sites in Vietnam, including: The Complex of Monuments in Hue, Thua Thien-Hue Province; and the Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park in Quang Binh Province. It includes primary and secondary data sources. Primary source was collected from semi-structured, in-depth interveriews, and focus group discussions. Focus aspects contains the different networks and flows of heritage-making in the two sites. Participated informants ranges from governmental officers (of different levels), tour providers, accommodation providers, tourguides, experts, and local community. Secondary sources is extracted from policies, regulation documents, and other virual data sources. The data was used for the Doctoral project that was funded by the German Academic Exchange Services (DAAD) from 2015 to 2020.