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    The Map shows the overlay of the number of land cover changes with NDVI decrease and increase between 2001 and 2011 referring to NDVI trends. Three classes among the trends are built. Besides a “tolerance class” meaning NDVI trends between -0.005 and +0.005 the dataset was classified into “decreasing” (NDVI Trend <-0.005) and “increasing” (NDVI trend >0.005) vegetation trends. The overlay highlights the southern part of Kenya, especially the counties Narok and Kajiado where a stable land cover and decreasing trends overlap. Within this overlap are also Kitui and Isiolo – both counties that were also highlighted in the OLS-regression output as underpredicting –, parts of Marsabit and some small areas along the coastline. Also again the northwestern area, mainly Turkana Region but also West Pokot and Baringo are expressing increasing trends and seem to be linked to a more stable land cover.

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    MODIS provides the Land Cover Type Product MCD12Q1 (Friedl et al., 2002) with 500m grid resolution which represents the same pixel size also used for the MODIS NDVI time-series analysis. Annually data provision and a matching pixel size with the MODIS NDVI data used earlier in this study were key elements for choosing this dataset. The Map shows the number of LULC changes as calculated based on the methods described in chapter II.3.3. Stable areas – where land cover changes are zero – can be identified in southern Kenya, Kajiado County in particular, but also in western Kenya north of Lake Victoria, around Lake Turkana, and in the northeastern part of Kenya bordering Ethiopia. Around 33.16% of the total land area experience zero changes from 2001-2011 while 16.11% changed once and 22.92% show two changes. Three (13.98%), four (9.53%) and five (3.42%) changes can still be observed in Map III.11 while areas experiencing more than five changes are occurring in less than 1% of the total land area. The different classes show the number of land cover changes within the observation period.

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    This map is included in a global study on mapping marginality focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The Dimensions of Marginality are based on different data sources representing different spheres of life. The dataset used for this approach (Marginality Hotspots) can also be found here: (link to datasett???). Five different dimenstion of marginality were defined and based on their thresholds overlayed to identify those areas where more than only 1 or 2 dimensions occur but several once which make these areas more marginal. With regard to the project MARGIP especially those people are at risk who are marginalized and poor and are thereby lacking possibilities due to missing access to capital and resources but also by being remote. The number of poor are the once we want to make visible. Therefore data by HarvestChoice on Poverty Mass representing the number of people living in poverty were overlayed with dimensions of marginality to give an impression on how many people are living in these spots and are thereby being poor and marginal. See also: http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/zef_wp/wp88.pdf .

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    Overlaying the number of marginality dimensions with percentage of people living below 1.25$/day. This map is included in a global study on mapping marginality focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The Dimensions of Marginality are based on different data sources representing different spheres of life. The poverty dataset used in this study is based on calculations by Harvest Choice. The underlying Marginality map is based on the approach on Marginality Mapping (http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/zef_wp/wp88.pdf). The respective map can be found here: https://daten.zef.de/#/metadata/ae4ae68c-cea3-44e7-8199-1c2ae04abb88

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    The Human Rights and Rule of Law Indicator considers the relationship between the state and its population insofar as fundamental human rights are protected and freedoms are observed and respected. The Indicator looks at whether there is widespread abuse of legal, political and social rights, including those of individuals, groups and institutions (e.g. harassment of the press, politicization of the judiciary, internal use of military for political ends, repression of political opponents). The Indicator also considers outbreaks of politically inspired (as opposed to criminal) violence perpetrated against civilians. It also looks at factors such as denial of due process consistent with international norms and practices for political prisoners or dissidents, and whether there is current or emerging authoritarian, dictatorial or military rule in which constitutional and democratic institutions and processes are suspended or manipulated.

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    Democracy Status index is calculated taking account indicators like Stateness, Political participation, Rule of Law, Stability of democratic institutions and political and social integration. Democratic status is one of indicators contributing for Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI). Thes hort description of Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI)is given below :- Advocating reforms aimed at supporting the development of a constitutional democracy and a socially responsible market economy, the BTI provides the framework for an exchange of good practices among agents of reform. The BTI publishes two rankings, the Status Index and the Management Index, both of which are based on in-depth assessments of 129 countries. The Status Index ranks the countries according to the state of their democracy and market economy, while the Management Index ranks them according to their respective leadership’s management performance. Distributed among the dimensions of democracy, market economy and management, a total of 17 criteria are subdivided into 49 questions. BTI countries are selected according to the following criteria: They have yet to achieve a fully consolidated democracy and market economy, have populations of more than two million (excepting seven states chosen as particularly interesting cases), and are recognized as sovereign states.

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    Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1–186. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. The rankings are determined by sorting the aggregate distance to frontier scores on 10 topics, each consisting of several indicators, giving equal weight to each topic. The rankings for all economies are benchmarked to June 2017.

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    Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1–186. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. The rankings are determined by sorting the aggregate distance to frontier scores on 10 topics, each consisting of several indicators, giving equal weight to each topic. The rankings for all economies are benchmarked to June 2017.

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    Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and/or politically motivated violence, including terrorism. This table lists the individual variables from each data source used to construct this measure in the Worldwide Governance Indicators

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    Trend Market Economy is calculated based on data of Market Economy status index for 2016 and 2018 whether it is increasing or decreasing. Market Economy Status index is calculated taking account indicators like Level of Socioeconomic Development, Organization of the Market and Competition, Currency and Price Stability, Private Property, welfare regime, economic performance and sustainability. Market Economy Status index is one of indicators contributing for Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI). The short description of Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI)is given below :- Advocating reforms aimed at supporting the development of a constitutional democracy and a socially responsible market economy, the BTI provides the framework for an exchange of good practices among agents of reform. The BTI publishes two rankings, the Status Index and the Management Index, both of which are based on in-depth assessments of 129 countries. The Status Index ranks the countries according to the state of their democracy and market economy, while the Management Index ranks them according to their respective leadership’s management performance. Distributed among the dimensions of democracy, market economy and management, a total of 17 criteria are subdivided into 49 questions. BTI countries are selected according to the following criteria: They have yet to achieve a fully consolidated democracy and market economy, have populations of more than two million (excepting seven states chosen as particularly interesting cases), and are recognized as sovereign states.