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    This map is included in a global study on mapping marginality focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The Dimensions of Marginality are based on different data sources representing different spheres of life. The dataset used for this approach (Marginality Hotspots) can also be found here: (link to datasett???). Five different dimenstion of marginality were defined and based on their thresholds overlayed to identify those areas where more than only 1 or 2 dimensions occur but several once which make these areas more marginal. With regard to the project MARGIP especially those people are at risk who are marginalized and poor and are thereby lacking possibilities due to missing access to capital and resources but also by being remote. The number of poor are the once we want to make visible. Therefore data by HarvestChoice on Poverty Mass representing the number of people living in poverty were overlayed with dimensions of marginality to give an impression on how many people are living in these spots and are thereby being poor and marginal. See also: http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/zef_wp/wp88.pdf .

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    MODIS provides the Land Cover Type Product MCD12Q1 (Friedl et al., 2002) with 500m grid resolution which represents the same pixel size also used for the MODIS NDVI time-series analysis. Annually data provision and a matching pixel size with the MODIS NDVI data used earlier in this study were key elements for choosing this dataset. The Map shows the number of LULC changes as calculated based on the methods described in chapter II.3.3. Stable areas – where land cover changes are zero – can be identified in southern Kenya, Kajiado County in particular, but also in western Kenya north of Lake Victoria, around Lake Turkana, and in the northeastern part of Kenya bordering Ethiopia. Around 33.16% of the total land area experience zero changes from 2001-2011 while 16.11% changed once and 22.92% show two changes. Three (13.98%), four (9.53%) and five (3.42%) changes can still be observed in Map III.11 while areas experiencing more than five changes are occurring in less than 1% of the total land area. The different classes show the number of land cover changes within the observation period.

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    Overlaying the number of marginality dimensions with percentage of people living below 1.25$/day. This map is included in a global study on mapping marginality focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The Dimensions of Marginality are based on different data sources representing different spheres of life. The poverty dataset used in this study is based on calculations by Harvest Choice. The underlying Marginality map is based on the approach on Marginality Mapping (http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/zef_wp/wp88.pdf). The respective map can be found here: https://daten.zef.de/#/metadata/ae4ae68c-cea3-44e7-8199-1c2ae04abb88

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    The Map shows the overlay of the number of land cover changes with NDVI decrease and increase between 2001 and 2011 referring to NDVI trends. Three classes among the trends are built. Besides a “tolerance class” meaning NDVI trends between -0.005 and +0.005 the dataset was classified into “decreasing” (NDVI Trend <-0.005) and “increasing” (NDVI trend >0.005) vegetation trends. The overlay highlights the southern part of Kenya, especially the counties Narok and Kajiado where a stable land cover and decreasing trends overlap. Within this overlap are also Kitui and Isiolo – both counties that were also highlighted in the OLS-regression output as underpredicting –, parts of Marsabit and some small areas along the coastline. Also again the northwestern area, mainly Turkana Region but also West Pokot and Baringo are expressing increasing trends and seem to be linked to a more stable land cover.

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    Agronomic Fertilizer Use Efficiency (WUE) for maize biomass in Ashanti region and Brong-Ahafo region in Ghana has been estimated under three different fertilizer application rates using crop model LINTUL5 embedded into the modeling framework SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact Assessment and Modelling Platform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem Management.

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    Market Economy Status index is calculated taking account indicators like Level of Socioeconomic Development, Organization of the Market and Competition, Currency and Price Stability, Private Property, welfare regime, economic performance and sustainability. Market Economy Status index is one of indicators contributing for Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI). The short description of Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI)is given below :- Advocating reforms aimed at supporting the development of a constitutional democracy and a socially responsible market economy, the BTI provides the framework for an exchange of good practices among agents of reform. The BTI publishes two rankings, the Status Index and the Management Index, both of which are based on in-depth assessments of 129 countries. The Status Index ranks the countries according to the state of their democracy and market economy, while the Management Index ranks them according to their respective leadership’s management performance. Distributed among the dimensions of democracy, market economy and management, a total of 17 criteria are subdivided into 49 questions. BTI countries are selected according to the following criteria: They have yet to achieve a fully consolidated democracy and market economy, have populations of more than two million (excepting seven states chosen as particularly interesting cases), and are recognized as sovereign states.

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    The State Legitimacy Indicator considers the representativeness and openness of government and its relationship with its citizenry. The Indicator looks at the population’s level of confidence in state institutions and processes, and assesses the effects where that confidence is absent, manifested through mass public demonstrations, sustained civil disobedience, or the rise of armed insurgencies. Though the State Legitimacy indicator does not necessarily make a judgment on democratic governance, it does consider the integrity of elections where they take place (such as flawed or boycotted elections), the nature of political transitions, and where there is an absence of democratic elections, the degree to which the government is representative of the population of which it governs. The Indicator takes into account openness of government, specifically the openness of ruling elites to transparency, accountability and political representation, or conversely the levels of corruption, profiteering, and marginalizing, persecuting, or otherwise excluding opposition groups. The Indicator also considers the ability of a state to exercise basic functions that infer a population’s confidence in its government and institutions, such as through the ability to collect taxes.

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    Environmental Democracy Index (EDI) consists of 75 legal indicators developed under 23 of the UNEP Bali Guidelines that are concerned with the development and implementation of legislation. In addition to the legal indicators, EDI includes 24 supplemental indicators that assess whether there is evidence that environmental democracy is being implemented in practice. The EDI legal indicators assess laws, constitutions, regulations and other legally binding, enforceable rules at the national level. Participation Index rank contains following guidelines:- Guideline 8: "Early Public Participation" ? Guideline 9: "Proactive Public Consultation" ? Guideline 10: "Informed Participation" ? Guideline 11: "Due Account of Public Comments" ? Guideline 12: "Public Participation in Review" ? Guideline 13: "Integrating Public Input for Rule-making" ? Guideline 14: "Capacity Building for public participation (There are no indicators for this guideline)"

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    Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and/or politically motivated violence, including terrorism. This table lists the individual variables from each data source used to construct this measure in the Worldwide Governance Indicators

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    The Demographic Pressures Indicator considers pressures upon the state deriving from the population itself or the environment around it. For example, the Indicator measures population pressures related to food supply, access to safe water, and other life-sustaining resources, or health, such as prevalence of disease and epidemics. The Indicator considers demographic characteristics, such as pressures from high population growth rates or skewed population distributions, such as a “youth or age bulge,” or sharply divergent rates of population growth among competing communal groups, recognizing that such effects can have profound social, economic, and political effects. Beyond the population, the Indicator also takes into account pressures stemming from natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, floods or drought), and pressures upon the population from environmental hazards.