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    In Nepal, rice-wheat annual double cropping system, which is the dominant food crop rotation in both the subtropical lowland as well as the temperate Himalayan mid-hills of Nepal. As a result of continuing urbanisation and shifting consumer preferences, a drive to replace of wheat with high-value vegetables during the cold dry season is gaining momentum, in the peri-urban fringes; simultaneously, emerging water shortages are preventing permanent soil flooding during the monsoon season, leading to partial substitution of lowland rice by less water-consuming upland crops. Such system shifts and associated changes in soil aeration status are altering the nutrient availability, while increasing the crop demand for the critically limiting micronutrients boron (B) and zinc (Zn). Therefore, compared the B and Zn levels in the traditional rice- based system (under anaerobic condition), in the water-saving maize-based system (aerobic conditions) with both conventional winter wheat and the emerging vegetables as rotation crops. Under controlled conditions in a dysfunctional greenhouse and under field conditions at two representative production sites and soil types (e.g. Acrisols in Kavre in the mid-hills of Nepal and a Fluvisols in Chitwan in the lowland), determined were(1) differential effects of system shifts on the soil supply and crop demand of B and Zn (diagnosis trials), (2) the effects of applying mineral B and Zn fertilizers on yields and economic returns of wheat vs. cauliflower and tomato (response trials), and (3) longer-term carry-over effects of a one-time application of soil B and Zn on biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake by maize (residual effect trials). Plant and soil nutrient was analyzed by Stata version 14.2.

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    The Demographic Pressures Indicator considers pressures upon the state deriving from the population itself or the environment around it. For example, the Indicator measures population pressures related to food supply, access to safe water, and other life-sustaining resources, or health, such as prevalence of disease and epidemics. The Indicator considers demographic characteristics, such as pressures from high population growth rates or skewed population distributions, such as a “youth or age bulge,” or sharply divergent rates of population growth among competing communal groups, recognizing that such effects can have profound social, economic, and political effects. Beyond the population, the Indicator also takes into account pressures stemming from natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, floods or drought), and pressures upon the population from environmental hazards.

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    This set of interviews is part of the 'Farmer Empowerment' project that focused on the impact of farmer organizations (FO) on the socio-economic development of their FO-member. The interviews were conducted within a first field research in order to gather information on institutional settings of FOs and to identify empowering approaches and empowering areas of Farmer Organizations.

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    The optimal allocation of scarce resources for health improvement is a crucial factor to lower the burden of disease and to strengthen the productive capacities of people living in developing countries. This research project aims to devise tools in narrowing the gap between the actual allocation and a more efficient allocation of resources for health in the case of Tanzania. Firstly, the returns from alternative government spending across sectors such as agriculture, water etc. are analysed. Maximisation of the amount of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted per dollar invested is used as criteria. A Simultaneous Equation Model (SEM) is developed to estimate the required elasticities. The results of the quantitative analysis show that the highest returns on DALYs are obtained by investments in improved nutrition and access to safe water sources, followed by spending on sanitation. Secondly, focusing on the health sector itself, scarce resources for health improvement create the incentive to prioritise certain health interventions. Using the example of malaria, the objective of the second stage is to evaluate whether interventions are prioritized in such a way that the marginal dollar goes to where it has the highest effect on averting DALYs. PopMod, a longitudinal population model, is used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of six isolated and combined malaria intervention approaches. The results of the longitudinal population model show that preventive interventions such as insecticide–treated bed nets (ITNs) and intermittent presumptive treatment with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) during pregnancy had the highest health returns (both US$ 41 per DALY averted). The third part of this dissertation focuses on the political economy aspect of the allocation of scarce resources for health improvement. The objective here is to positively assess how political party competition and the access to mass media directly affect the distribution of district resources for health improvement. Estimates of cross-sectional and panel data regression analysis imply that a one-percentage point smaller difference (the higher the competition is) between the winning party and the second-place party leads to a 0.151 percentage point increase in public health spending, which is significant at the five percent level. In conclusion, we can say that cross-sectoral effects, the cost-effectiveness of health interventions and the political environment are important factors at play in the country’s resource allocation decisions. In absolute terms, current financial resources to lower the burden of disease in Tanzania are substantial. However, there is a huge potential in optimizing the allocation of these resources for a better health return.

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    Overlaying the number of marginality dimensions with percentage of people living below 1.25$/day. This map is included in a global study on mapping marginality focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The Dimensions of Marginality are based on different data sources representing different spheres of life. The poverty dataset used in this study is based on calculations by Harvest Choice. The underlying Marginality map is based on the approach on Marginality Mapping (http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/zef_wp/wp88.pdf). The respective map can be found here: https://daten.zef.de/#/metadata/ae4ae68c-cea3-44e7-8199-1c2ae04abb88

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    The baseline data for the survey comes from the fifth round of the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS) conducted in 1999/2000. The baseline survey covers 18 rural villages located in four major regions (Tigray, Amhara, Oromia, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region). A total of 1,681 households were surveyed, constituting 8,924 individuals, of which 3,183 were 4-14-year-old children. This is a follow-up tracking survey of those children aged 4-14 years old in the 1999/2000 survey after 16 years when they are young adults / youth aged between 20 and 30 years. A total of 789 children were tracked from five of the rural villages, namely Debre Berhan, Dinki, Adele Keke, Adado, and Shumsheha, in order to understand the long-term effects of childhood work on their human capital formation, migration decisions, and earnings in the adult labor markets in Ethiopia. Every attempt was made to track and resurvey migrant resurveying targets to other rural villages, towns and cities and reduce the attrition rate. Accordingly, 652 children were resurveyed for the long-term analysis.

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    The Fragile States Index is based on a conflict assessment framework – known as “CAST” – that was developed by FFP nearly a quarter-century ago for assessing the vulnerability of states to collapse. The CAST framework was designed to measure this vulnerability in pre-conflict, active conflict and post-conflict situations, and continues to be used widely by policy makers, field practitioners, and local community networks. The methodology uses both qualitative and quantitative indicators, relies on public source data, and produces quantifiable results.Twelve conflict risk indicators are used to measure the condition of a state at any given moment. The indicators provide a snapshot in time that can be measured against other snapshots in a time series to determine whether conditions are improving or worsening.

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    The child module questionnaire was used to collected information about child feeding practices such as exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, current breastfeeding and complementary foods, prevalence of illness in the previous two weeks period (such as diarrhea, malaria, fever, pneumonia, and cough), immunization records and anthropometric measurements.

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    Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1–186. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. The rankings are determined by sorting the aggregate distance to frontier scores on 10 topics, each consisting of several indicators, giving equal weight to each topic. The rankings for all economies are benchmarked to June 2017.

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    This research addresses the understanding of three concepts: spatial planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecosystem services, in a multi-actor setting in Chile. For that a survey based on a questionnaire application was implemented involving government institutions, research institutions and consultants. The questionnaire consisted in 20 questions including a set of Likert, closed and open ended questions. The focus of the questionnaire was on issues such as network relations among actors and on conceptual understanding, perceptions and challenges for integrating ES in SEA and spatial planning, knowledge on methodological approaches, and the connections and gaps in science-policy. The main findings suggest that a common understanding of SEA and especially of ES is still in an initial stage in Chile when we consider the context of multiple actors. Additionally, the lack of institutional guidelines and methodological support is considered the main challenge for integration. We conclude that preconditions exist in Chile for integrating ES in SEA and the spatial planning practice, but they strongly depend on an appropriate governance scheme which encourages a close interaction science-policy as well as collaborative work and learning.